WELCOME

Welcome to my blog. Please feel free to roam around and learn a bit more about Portuguese History. To find your interests, please, have a look at the right side of the page, where you can find all the posts arrenged into labels, such as "Society", "Politics", etc. Enjoy!

Sunday, November 24, 2013

The 1st Fench Invasion explained chronologically

Here's a link to a document which explains in detail de 1st French Invasion in Portugal But the best that I've found was the chronological resume at the bottom of the text, which is very helpfull and which I'll translate into Portuguese. And if you're a military geek, the detail of the regiments involved in the 1st invasion can be very interesting too.



1806
19th of May – Decree that reorganizes the Portuguese Army. The Unites are known by numbers.
21st of November – Napoleon promulgates decrees ordering the closure of the European harbors to British navigation (Continental blockade)

1807
19th of July – Ultimatum for Portugal to join the Continental Blockade.
12th of August – France demands form Portugal to declare war to England until September 1st.
30th of August – In Lisbon the project to remove the the Crown to Brazil is approved.
30th of September – The government representatives of Spain and France abandon Lisbon.
17th of October – Junot receives orders to initiate the invasion of Portugal.
27th of October – Spain and France sign the Fontainebleau treaty.
30th of October – In an attempt to keep the French menace at bay, D. João declares war to Great Britain.
16th of November – Royal Warning to save the silver form the churches.
17th of November – Junot in Alcântara (Spain) proclaimers to the Portuguese people promises of friendship, but hard threats if there's resistance.
19th of November – Junot's army crosses the Portuguese border at the bridge of Segura.
24th of November – French arrive Abrantes.
26th of November – Decree by the Prince Regent D. João nominating the governors of the Kingdom.
27th of November – The Portuguese Crown embarkes in the squadron that will take them to Brazil.
29th of November – The squadron finally leaves the Tagus. Junot arrives in Sacavém. Several personalities linked to the Crown, to the National Academy and the Free Masons travel to Sacavém to ask for protection.
30th of November – Junot enters Lisbon.
13th of December – Rebellion breaks out in Lisbon when the Portuguese flag is substituted by the French at S. Jorge's castle.
22nd of December – Decree by Junot reducing the number of regiments in the Portuguese Army.
23rd of December – Decree signed in Milan in which Napoleon imposes a contribution of 40
million “cruzados” to return the private property.
24th of December – Occupation of Madeira by the British.

1808
11th of January – Decree by Junot dissolving the Militia.
21st of January – The Crown arrives at Brazil.
27th of January – Royal letter that opens the Brazilian harbors to trade with all friendly nations.
01st of February – Decree by de Junot declaring that the “kingdom of Portugal” will be ruled by him (Junot) in name of His Majesty the Emperor of the French and King of Italy.
10th of February – Decree by Junot disarming and dissolving the “Ordenanças”.
19th of February – Trade treaty allying Portugal and Great Britain.
20th of February – Decree by Junot organizing the “Legião Portuguesa” to move to France.
23rd of February – Command written by Junot choosing the people to travel to Bayonne to declare publicly fidelity to Napoleon.
16th of March – The “Legião Portuguesa” at Napoleon's service leaves for France. Convention regulating the relations between Madeira and the British authorities.
19th of March – Carlos IV of Spain abdicates.
6th of April – Napoleon gives the title of Duke of Abrantes to Junot.
2nd of May – Uprising in Madrid.
4th of June – Uprising in Chaves and Bragança.
06th of June – Uprising in Porto.
10th of June – The Prince Regent declares war on France.
16th June – Mutiny in Lisbon.
18th of June – Battle of Quelfes (Olhão).
19th June – The “Junta Provisional do Supremo Governo do Reino” is formed in Porto..
21st of June – The French are forced to move back in Mesão Frio. Looting in Régua.
22nd of June – Uprising in Coimbra.
26th of June – Beja is attacked and looted.
27th of June – The fortress of Santa Catarina (Figueira da Foz) is taken by the Portuguese forces.
30th of June – Leiria is freed.
5th of July – Margaron attacks Leiria.
13th of July – Orders, Instructions an Plans for the Organization of the Army.
15th of July – The French attack and loot Nazaré.
16th of July – The Portuuese forces siege Almeida.
21st of July – Dupont's French Army is defeated in Bailén.
23rd of July – Wellington meets with the “Junta do Porto”.
29th of July – Fighting in Évora.
01st of August – The British army lands in Lavos, near Figueira da Foz.
17th of August – Portuguese forces regain Abrantes. Battle of Roliça.
20th of August – British reinforcements land in Porto Novo.
21st of August – Battle of Vimeiro.
22nd of August – The armistice between French and Brits is signed.
30th of August – The Convention of Sintra is signed.
15th of September – The French start to evacuate Portugal.
18th of September – The crown's Regency is restored. The insurrection “Juntas” are dissolved.
21st of September – The ship “Bom Sucesso” arrives in Rio de Janeiro with the news of the uprising in Portugal. It had left Olhão on June 16th.
30th September – Orders for the reorganization of the Portuguese army.
14th of October – Decree that states the reorganization of the army by May 19th 1806. The battalions of the “Caçadores” are created.
26th of October – Neves Costa sends a letter to the Crown's Regency stating the importance of the Northern territory.
2nd of December – The last of the French troops leave Portugal.
11th of December – Decree in which the country is armed and mobilized.
20th of December – Decree that organizes the militia. 48 regiments are intended in a total of 50.000 men.

Friday, November 15, 2013

Quilting and flannel

http://kleidungum1800.blogspot.pt/2013/11/eine-nicht-eben-kurze-doch-hoffentlich.html?showComment=1384510967873

This is a link to a precious post I have found on a blog I follow. Besides showing the awsome work of the blog's owner and writing in 2 languages (!), this post refers to 2 things I find very interesting:
1 - A regency period quilted dress;
2 - Proof on the use of flannel, specially cotton one.

And with this I give you news and knowledge on both matters, more so the 2nd topic since it is something I had talked about on a previous post.
Just jump over the german bit if that is not your known language and read on.

A Regency Holiday Calendar

English Historical Fiction Authors: A Regency Holiday Calendar: by  Maria Grace Each year it seems we complain that the holiday season begins earlier and earlier with some shops bringing out holiday good...

Monday, November 11, 2013

S. MARTINHO – Saint Martin's day


Well, today is St. Martin's day (amongst other things (like the beginning of the pagan Carnival and the date we celebrate the end of 1st WW).
I think it's not necessary for me to tell you who St. Martin was, you can google it, but what I am here to tell you is the importance of this day in Portuguese Society.
If you google “S. Martinho” or St. Martin you'll find many, although there are two of them that are of notice (having one of them been a Portuguese Bishop of the city of Braga). The one attached to the day's celebration's and what I'm going to blog about is the following:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Martin_of_Tours

The traditions surrounding this day, St. Martin's day, are called the “magusto” is an Iberian celebration of pagan origins. And of course, the Catholic Church dedicated this day to that Saint, turning the festivities more acceptable in the eyes of religion.
Well, I don't know about other places, but in Portugal the “magusto” is celebrated with roasted chestnuts, bonfires and young wine, amongst other particular traditions around this country and it's villages.
What I can tell you about these 1st ones is that the bonfires come from a time before time and have, so therefore, been around for longer than we can imagine. The young wine is logical enough: in September you take the grape crops and make wine, so the it hasn't matures yet.
About the chestnuts, I have researched them and have found information very well explained on another person's blog (unfortunately only in Portuguese).
http://escavar-em-ruinas.blogs.sapo.pt/51341.html 

 But what it says, and what I have said also on my medieval food blog, is that in the past humans have found ways to get their daily amounts of carbohydrates in many of the produce given by nature, instead of only wheat or general cereal. Amongst these are acorns and chestnuts. They would keep during winter and flower could be made off them, guaranteeing daily bread. And since November is the month of chestnuts in the Iberian Peninsula, it is logic that people have used it to celebrate this day.
If the “magusto” has pagan origins and if it has been associated with St. Martin by the Catholic Church, can it also be said that in a time before the Roman Empire, this day would have been a “holy- day”? That I cannot say, but that there are similar celebrations found in the Roman calendar, for sure; and that St. Martin day has been around since the Middle Ages, absolutely; ans that the French and British armies have encountered locals roasting chestnuts on the streets (and most likely celebrated this day), just have a look at the several women who have been inspiration to so many foreign painters then and since then.

 João Palhares

A.P.D.G.
 1863

Kinsey

Friday, November 8, 2013