Holy Inquisition: Although the Portuguese Holy Inquisition lasted longer then the Spanish (both of them as soon as the end of the 15th century until the French Invasion, while in Portugal officially only in 1821) both of them provoked a halt in society's development. The control of the Catholic Church over people's lives and thoughts, for centuries, caused a serious handicap in the sense of individuality and belonging of the Iberian people. One could get arrested, be tortured and set to die in a public square for something as simple as hear-say. Not bowing before the cross, not eating pork, swearing in public, etc, were other of the lowest accusations one could suffer.
Religion: Inquisition aside, the Catholic Religion was very important in both countries. I have spoken before about the Catholic Puritanism of the Portuguese Society. It must have been similar in Spain. Not only did it took part in every aspect of daily life, it also controlled science and public education. And not speaking about the cult around everything clerical, to a point of what we today would call hysteria. Of course, this goes without saying that the intellectual world sought refuge in foreign countries.
"This is not the least". Old noblemen carrying a religious icon in a procession, showing that instead of working for the end of war the higher classes are more worried about the salvation of their souls.
"Strange devotion". A religious relic being carried by a donkey. The daily evils and injustices are forgotten by the passing of a dead monk turned saint.
Education: As said above, controlled by the Church. Medicine, politics, philosophy and other scientific studies were oppressed by the thought that God was the explanation for everything. We mustn’t forget that the Lisbon earthquake of 1755 was explained for haven been caused by people's sins and even some of the more “modern” explanations of shifting in the soil that appeared around this time, were not only set aside but considered heretic. Also on a private level, education given at home or in private schools was very violent. Wrong answers, slow learning, laziness were corrected with a strong hand and through physical punishment. Even servants or people from lower classes were thought to be allowed to be corrected this way.
"He broke the pitcher". According to Goya children are punished for breacking a pitcher but not for real missdemeaners.
"They take advatage". A consequence of war. Soldiers robbing cadavers.
"That's how it happened". A church being looted.
"Cartloads to the cemetery".
"Heal them and ready for a new one". Soldiers would get a quick fix and be sent back onto the battle field.
"What use has the bowl?". 1 bowl of soup isn't enough to help these people.
"They are from another lineage". The gap between rich and poor makes either side feel that they belong to another "lineage".
"And they are beasts". The ferocity of the women saving themselves.
"Ravages of War". Bombing of a house.
"Unlucky mother". And child.
"There is no remedy". Mass shootings taking place.
"They don't want to". Besides of the imminent assault, it shows the strenght of these women.
"One can't look". A group of Spaniards after searching refuge in a cave are facing a shooting.
"Not even like this". Elegant women being assaulted by soldiers. Notice the fallen baby on the ground.
"The worst is to begg". An elegant girl is trying to pass by beggars trying not to see them.
"Mob". Poplars hitting the body of a dead or almost soldier.
"What rampage is this?". French officials demanding taxes, leaving the population impoverished and the women crying.
"What esle is there to do?". Question asked after the enormous amount of atrocities commited by the invading forces.