Having always had an interest in the Portuguese folklore dances and always having in the back of my mind the question of what sort of music and dances would be played at the late 18th century to early 19th century in Portugal (and by this I mean the general Portuguese population and not the higher classes, since they would hear and dance whatever would be fashionable in France), I came across the following link and that I will partially translate; only the more interesting time period parts. I found it in a site about Portuguese folklore and perhaps you'll find more interesting things in it.
If you're having trouble in understanding which part of Portugal is being talked about, have a look at the right side of the blog's page; you'll find a map of this country and it's different regions.
BAILARICO (little ball)
The “bailarico” is a commoner's dance from the regions from the rivers Alcoa to Sado, specially in the regions of Torres Vedras, Caldas da Rainha, Malveira, Sintra and Mafra, being known as “the peasants dance”. But it is also known in Alentejo, Ribatejo and Algarve.
It is one of the most typical and characteristics dances of Portugal. It is simple, naif, with a good rhythm and movement. It's simplicity and it's busy rhythm are characteristics of the the Portuguese genuine simplicity.
It is danced with 2, 4 or 6 pairs of people.
Peasants dancing, drawing in James C. Murphy's book "Travels in Portugal", 1797.
“Chula” or “Xula” is an old Portuguese dance. Gil Vicente (Portuguese poet from the16th century) refers it in one of theatrical pieces. It is a dance that has a singer, that sings “ao desafio” (as a dare or bravado), but it's chorus is instrumental.
It is a typical Northern dance – from Minho to Beira Alta, although the Chula from the Alto Douro has special instruments and a special way of dancing.
It can be played with a “ramaldeira” guitar, just like the typical dances from Minho and Douro and with a “ronda minhota” (a small peasant's orchestra with a clarinet, fiddle, harmonica, “cavaquinho” (aka as ukelele), guitar, a type of a bigger guitar, a big drum and a triangle) or a “festada duriense” (which is the same as above minus the clarinet, but with “canas” (cracked canes)).
"Chula" of Baião, instrumental. In the background you can see different Portuguese musical instruments.
The fiddle used in a "chula".
From the musical point of view it is very similar to the “vira”, but danced in a different way; it is possible that today's “vira” is not more then the old form of “fandango” danced in a cross formation.
A dance that comes from Spain, the “fandango” in-rooted itself in Portugal, where it is danced in almost the entire country since long ago. The Professor Armando Leço, who studied the commoner songs and dances of Portugal, says that it is still something danced from Minho to the Algarve.
However, the regions that prefers this type of dance the most is the Ribatejo region, the outskirts of Minho and Beira Baixa and Beira Litoral.
The poet Bocage (see a previous post about him) refers to it, and the English writer Twiss, who visited our country in 1772, says that he saw «the “fandango” danced with great gallantry and expression». The poet Gil Vicente sometimes uses the expression “esfandangado”.
In Ribatejo it is danced by the sound of the harmonica or a Iberian bagpipe, while in Ferreira do Zêzere, Tomar, Mação en Borba by the sound of the guitar. In Trás-os-Montes it is danced in a circle.
It is so rooted into the Portuguese culture that it was taken to Brazil. In the Northeastern States it is danced too, but given a different name that show that it were the Portuguese who brought it there: “sailor’s ball”, “sailor's dance”, etc. In Paraná, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul the word “fandango” means party or festivities.
"Fandango" danced in the Ribatejo fashion.
FARRAPEIRA (a woman that buys and sells rags)
It is one of the most typical and beautiful dances in Portugal. It's not known how old it is, but it's assumed to be very old according to it's typical dance formation.
It's a dance from the Northern interior. The melody is similar to a “caninha-verde” (another type of dance) and it demands a vigorous marker/timer. Although it is a typical dance of the Beiras, its is also danced in Ribatejo. It has a lot of rhythm, it's accompanied by a guitar and, in some regions, by a fife and an Iberian bagpipe.
One of the characteristics of the “farrapeira” is that it is one of the rare cases where the chorus is instrumental. It's assumed that it is a bourgeois dance, or with city origins, and that the common people have adopted, since it polka like rhythm reminds the quadrille, that are know to be ball room dances. It's nothing more then a rural quadrille.
The bagpipe traditionaly played in the Trás-os-Montes region.
REGADINHO (from the word “watered” or “regadío” - irrigation system)
The “regadinho” is a commoner's dance that became vulgarized in the last century and is still danced in the entire North of Portugal and also in the Beira Litoral. It's, therefore, a hybrid dance, with something truly Northern and something truly coastal.
It's a well rhythmic dance, more or less, like a march. This aspect makes us believe that it is a ball room dance or bourgeois dance, imported from Europe after the French Invasions. In the North they dance the “regadinho” without instrumental background, only with a different type of guitar, but in the Beira Litoral they dance it to the sound of a guitar.
This is a dance commonly danced by people from the Alto Alentejo, but also found in other regions.
Some say that it comes from a Andalusian dance (Spain) more known as “saeta”, but they have nothing in common, since the “saias” are a profane dance used as entertainment and “saetas” are accompanied by liturgical singing and only danced in religious processions.
There are different types of “saias”:
a) old ones - danced as a mazurka waltze;
b) new ones - the today ones, danced as a rural waltze;
c) “aiadas” - when the timer yells “ai” in the chorus to determine the exact time to turn;
d) “little jumped ones” or “jumped”;
e) with “estribilho” - with chorus.
The “saias” can be danced or sung.
Already in the 17th century would “saias” be danced and which archaic ways can still be found in Escalos-de-Baixo.
It's in Alto Alentejo that they are danced with a tambourine or a adaúfe (a type of tamborin) and makes them a bit more characteristic.
Catarina Chitas, one of the last Portuguese women to play the "adaúfe").
VIRA (turn around)
The “vira” is one of the oldest Portuguese commoner's dances; of it has Gil Vicente already talked about in his play “Nau d'Amores” as a typical Minho dance.
In fact it has that tradition, although it also danced in other regions too. It is the most popular and popularized dance of this country.
There are innumerous varieties – as in songs and ways of dancing: “vira” in a circle, “vira” in a waltze, Galician “vira”, “vira” “fandango” style, “vira” from Póvoa do Varzim, etc.
The “vira” from Régua is the “chula”.
The "vira", danced by a folklore group.
I would like to learn how to dance early these 19th century Portuguese folklore dances so much! They are so more fun then ball room dances! (This is me sending out a wish into the universe, hoping it will come back one day!)